C:).¥ Ii and NATURAL ]

moe lok OQO R- Bez,

OF |

IJ WM I2 F

PRI ii i

Ys -— T ERES

Vit 55 ;O HEIL m mm mE E X LE H

M

y e | Fi N

j d , E

s, Y 4 h

ME ^

$ v f Y je UB "t = m "

um

i: Rio Bubno *

nes . be Re ACC Beet py! z -N ummahs m S X g ie Eg

Z2 27

Bi avana f

de TE

i esir e-

a

“ee fete * ye É ivi é Meles

es

30 245 20 147 10 VII = L AMI [^B A A f mm hw Imm um —m-xm im am -- got serm mr mer ant mr bum 18 T nr Stool MEN

a * à E IRS 4 - am 1 is * Ss X 3 A , "E E i —— ~ Kons is oe = { P } 6 5 » " S SS E " Met (dx Mee d X er AU WU APSA v MW UNE ; ho e 3 GENE NR bf N 1 A aie E f r; jw rA A BON 1 = 3 HET A * ^v A x y = S. Sy > A L1 1 SSMO i A 9 ENT ^ = k 4 kd t x% : —— {WSs $ A = : ` A Y

qd 4

A ; :3 / = i ' aS 2 3 , : 1o We. oa 2 d^ C Mur Jum ID XU ó Wr ve S 20 L o E i X X IV o. p TED NEU E "uu KIT JUI GUN] GNE TIME re ON] UNE E EI a MIN gU amu uim mm E

E] g Zz ~ 5 Se

ee,

NA

\ AY "

jte OS

i I—À T == = = Xm

he

7d Gri be T

"EO, Richme: hip k 4

e

AY. ANI hitle R.i:

M js rM $c serlo

Cuo heard

m 7v,

Ez

d

1

R á A Correct MAP of `

The roto /

No FA MAICA.

saree

CODE Ss

os to ont Gm me Nm m

VI 53

a To DT Ht ; i " [qmi WU Im = hm : ud : 3 AE s 5 Tu CLE HUI UR om E Xm wm LL NET WUmp GUT qur Gump INE] C XE XML en mr mm T turi Tu ae enn umm Hu Gum M Zo 35 2 20 CE 5 "

ele

Tn nm 15

PL. TIT. NIIT AGI Tm Y

m s LUA I TU] 7 a 4

a

A

30

MU TET EE ao 3d

LEE

2

L T

20

10

T HE

CIVIL and NATURAL ^ H lS TI.O. X

——á A

In Three PAR T S

CONTAINING,

I. An accurate Defcription of that Ifland, its Situation and Soil; with a brief Account of its former and prefent State, Government, Revenues, Produce, and Trade. II, A Hiftory of the natural Productions, including the various Sorts of native Foflils į perfe& and imperfect Vegetables; Quadrupedes, Birds, Fifhes, Reptiles and Infe&s ; with their Properties and Ufes in Mechanics, Diet, and Phyfic. : 254 III. An Account of the Nature of Climates in general, and their different Effe&s upon the human Body; with a Detail of the Difeafes arifing from this Source, particularly within the Tropics.

In Thee DISSERTATIONS. The Whole illuftrated with Fifty Copper-Plates :

In which the moft curious Productions are reprefented of the natural Size, and | delineated immediately from .the Objects.

6 By PATRICK BROWNE, M.D.

REE mue

L ON Bo x

Printed for the AU THOR; and fold by T. OssoRNE, and J. SHIPTON, | in Gray's-Inn. MOCOENR | | ]

i ; MISSOURI ro BOTANICAL »

e X puigul- FRE gee

iS

Den c Biber

"V [13

xbv.

BUNTEN ae

A

CATALOGUE of te AUTHORS

Whofe Names are abbreviated in this WORK.

Flo. Lap. Flor. Virg.

. Gron. Fl. Virg.

Gron. Muf. Ich.

Tone.

ROSPER Alpinus de plantis /Egyptiacis Petri Artedii, &c. Opera Ichthyologica omnia

Effay fur L'Hiftoire Naturelle, &c. par Pierre Barreré Cafpari Baubini Theatrum Botariicum Pinax

Herm. Boerhaave Index alter Plantarum, &c.

Philippi Bonani recreatio mentis & oculi, &c. Indie orientalis res naturalis & medica, authore Guil. Bontio Jacobi Breynii exoticarum plantarum centurie Joh. Burmanni Thef. Zeylonicum Decades Africane D. G. Buttneri Plante cunonis The Natural Hiftory of Carolina, by Mark Catefby Cafpari Comelini plante rariores exotica Samuelis à Dale Pharmacologia, &c.

A Natural Hiftory of Birds, by George Edwards

Flora Lapponica, Car. Linnzi

Flora Virginica, &c, Joh. Fred. Gronovio authore Idem

Laur, Theo. Groriovii Mufeum Ichthyologicum

Index teftarum Conchiliorum in Mufeo Nicolai Gualtieri Francifci Hernandesnova plantarum,&c Mexicanarum Hiftoria | The Natural Hiftory of Minerals, &c. by John Hill Hortus Indicus Malabaricus, per Hen. Van Rheede, &c. Hortus Cliffortianus, &c. per Car. Linnzum

Hortus Eltamenfis, &c. per Jo. Jac. Dillenium

The Gardner's Dictionary, by Philip Miller.

Joh. Jonftoni Icones Piícium, &c.

Engelberti Kempferi Amcenitates exoticze

Joh. Theod. Klein mifi, varii ©

Caroli Linnzi opera varia

Car. Linnzi Flora Lapponica

Car. Linnzi genera plantarum

Hortus Cliffortianus, authore Carolo Linnzo

Materia Medica Caroli Linnaei

Mufa Cliffortiana, per Car. Linnzum

Caroli Linnzi fpecies plantarum

Caroli Linnzi Syftema Nature, &c.

Caroli Linnzi Orationes varie

Martini Lifteri Hiftoria five Synopfismethodica Conchiliorum Petri Martyris Decades Americane ' |

Petri Ant, Michelii nova plantarum genera

Muf.

A bIS EE AUTHORS s

Pet. Gaz, Pif.

Pk. & Pluck. Plum.

PI. fil. Rai. Roy. Rumph. Slo. Cat.

i: „Francifci i Wiaughbeii Iabiogisphin nova, &c,

Mufeum Ichthyologicum Laur. Theo. Gronovii

Mufeum Zeylónicuin, authore Paulo Hermanno.

Pub, Ovidii Nafonis Halieuticon, per Colinzum 1545

Gazophylacii nature & artis Decad. V. authore Jac. Petiver,

De Indiz utriufque re medica & naturali, &c. authore Gu-

lielmo Pifo

Leon. Pluckenetii Phytographia, 3, 3 & £t

Caroli Plumeri, nova genera, icones, & fpecies pee Americanarum

Caroli Plumeri tractatus de filicibus Americanis

Joh. Raii Hiftoria Plantarum .

Adriani Royeni flora Leydenfis

Rumphii Thefaurus Imaginum Pifcium teftaceotum

Catalogus Plantarum, qua in Infula Jamaica, &c. authore Hans Sloane, M.D. | =

A Voyage to the Iflands of Madeiras, Nevis, St. Chriftopher’s and Jamaica, &c. by Hans Sloane, M.D.

Theophrafti Erefii Hiftoria Plantarum

Thefaurus Zeylonicus, Johanne Burmanno authore Jof. Pitt. Tournefortii Inftitutiones Rei Herbariz

A Difcourfe of the State of Health, &c. by Thomas Taghain P. Virgilii Maronis Opera

E ds» » h " : 7 Eme R. : Diois ; ÉTER TONE ;

His ROYAL HiGHERE Se ; George William Frederick

PRINCE of WALES

ARDON me, ILLustTRious PRINCE, if, at this time, when the moft important fcenes engage your attention, I attempt to lay before you the Civil and

Natural State of a Colony, whichan extenfive trade and a commodious fituation ‘have long rendered the object both of the care and munificence of the Crown; and endeavour to fend it into the world, under the patronage of a Prince whofe eminent virtues now engage the thoughts and attention of the moft confiderable part of mankind, as well independent as allies and fubjects to your Royal Family.

Natural hiftory, on which fo many neighbouring princes now beftow their attention, has been long en- couraged and happily cultivated in thefe realms, under the aufpicious influence of your Royal Anceftors: and as every attempt to advance our knowledge in the Works of nature, and to promote the general welfare

a of

DEDICATION.

of mankind, meets with your gracious approbation,

deign, GREAT PRINCE, to accept thefe endeavours: and

that you may ever difplay that wifdom, moderation, and juftice, fo confpicuous in all your Royal F amily, and long continue a eus d to thefe Kingdoms is the ardent rm of

Your RoyaL HIGHNEss’s Mofi Devoted =.

Humble Servant, .

PATRICK BROWNE.

A:

TIG

A

LIST “of SUBSCRIBERS,

R: Samuel Adams - M Robert Arcedeckne, Efq; Dr. Afkew Mr. James Athil

John Ayfcough, Efq;

Mr. William Baldwin Mr. Alexander Ballantyne Jofeph Tofter Barham, Efq; Zachary Bayly, Efq;

William Beckford, “Efq;

Richard Beckford, Efq;

Julines Beckford, Efq;

Francis Beckford, Eíq;

Thomas Beech, Eíq;

Charles Bernard, Efq;

Martin Blake, Efg; 4. Copies

‘Mr. John Boyd - Nicholas Bourke, Efq;

Peter Brady, M. D.

William Patrick Browne, Efq;

Mrs. Sarah Burke Sobannes Burmannus, M.D. Profeffor . Betanices in Horto Amftelaedamenj,

^ Henry Bynlofs, Efq; ^ ^ - Thomas Bynlofs, M. D.

Michael Connel, M. D. -= Capt. James Coleman

Peter Collenfos, Elg; F.R.S. Francis Cooke, Efq; |

Mr. James Cradock Samuel Crofs, Efq; George Crump, Efq; 2 Copies Jofhua Crump, Eíq;

bt

Henry Dawkins, Efq; Philip Delaney, Efq; Francis Delap, Efq; Caleb Dickenfon, Efq; Dominick Duany, Efq; Edmund Duany, Efa; Owen Duany, Efq; John Dunbar, Eíq;

Patrick Dunbar, Efq;

Mr. John Ellis, F. R. S. Mr. John Erfkine.

John Falconer, Efg;

James Farril, Efq;

Thomas Fearon, Efq; Walrond Fearon, Efq; Wheeler Fearon, Efq; Henry Peters Fearon, Eq; Edward Fearon, Efq; William Fofter, Eq; Thomas Foíter, Eíq; Samuel Fofter, Eq;

Mr. Edward Foord

John Fothergill, M; D. 2 Copies Mr. William Frafier Thomas Freeman, Efq; John French, Eíq;

Rofe Fuller,. Eq;

The Right Hon. J. Carteret Earl of Granville, &c. &c. &c. Prefident of the Council.

Capt. William Galbraith

- Mr. Francis Gale Mr. Francis Garden, 2 Copies

Mr. John Gent

Mr. Thomas Gordon

Mr. William Gordon, jun, .

Sir Alexander Grant, Bart: |.

Thomas Gray, Eíq;

Mr. Thomas Graham

Mr. Alexander Graham

Matthew Gregory, Efq;

Jobannes Fred. Gronovius, M. D, Civit. Leydenfis Senator Excabrinus, & Col- legii pupillaris praefectus.

The Rev. Dr. Stephen Hales, F. R.S: &c.

Mr. Stephen Harris

Thomas Hay, Efq;

William

ahs (PO 3E

William Heberden, M. D. Thomas Hibbert, Efq; Mr. Thomas Hill

Mr. John Hewells -

Dr. James

John Jeake, Efq;

His Excellency- Charles Knowles, Efq; Governor of Jamaica, &c. 2 Copies

Mr. John Kelly

Benjamin King, Efq;

Cotton King, Efq;

Mr. Thomas King

James Lawrence, Efq;

Carolus Linneus Eques-Auratus, Maj. Suecia Archiater, &c. &c.

Nathanael Lloyd, Efq;

S. R.

Mr. John M*Anuff

Alexander M‘ Farlane, Efq;

Capt. Benjamin Marlow

Mr. Thomas Maqueftian

George Mackenzie, B

. Richard Maitland, =

The Hon, Charles Monfon, ER

Henry Moore, Efq;

'The Rev. Mr. Robert Moncreif

. James Monro, M. D. Dominick Monro, Efq;

Mr. William Morris

Petrus Van Muffenbroek, A. L. M. Med. & Phil. D. Phil. Math. Profeffor Qr- dinarius in Academi Lugduno- Ba- fava.

. Henry Needham, Efq; Mr. John Nugent

James Ord, Efq;

John Palmer, Efg;

John Patterfon, Efq; 2 Copies ‘Thomas Partridge, Efq; Philip Pinnock, Efq; Nicholas Plifham, Efq;

Mr. Arthur Pond, F. R.S.

Patrick Taylor, Efq;

Captain Thomas Trower

Mr. William Watíon

SUBSCRIBERS.

Robert Pott, Eíq; Capt. James Purcell

The Reverend Dr, Reading Mr. John Richardfon

Captain Thomas Saumarez

Lieutenant Ifaac Samms

John Scott, Eíq;

Schwenke, M. D. Profeffor Bo- tanices Haga-Comitenjis

J. A. Schlofler, M. D. 3

Mr. William Shields a

Mr. Rowland Smith E

Thomas Stack, M. D. F. R.S,

John Stickle, Eíq;

Captain John Stott, 2 Copies

Anthony Langley Swymmer, Efq;

Nathanael Sydíerfe, Efq;

John Thomlenfon, Efq; Masa B

Chrifophorus Jacobus Trew, Medicus Norimbergen/fis.

Nicholas Tuite, Efq; 2 Copies

Samuel Turner, Eíq;

Richard Tyrrel, Efq;

Florentius Vaffal, Efq; The Reverend Mr. John Vine

E. F. Van Wachendorf, Botanices & Chemie Profeffor Ultrajectinus

Matthew Wallen, Eíq;

Thomas Wallen, Efg;

Edward Webly, Eíq; | à Samuel Whitehorn, Efíg; E Edward Wilmot, Med. Reg. 1 John Woodcock, Efq; 4 Mr. John Wright | A William Wynter, Efq;

William Yeeles, Efq; William Young, Efq;

PRE-

OMEN T y

an aaan

L 1 A Pte wowed A

TU Ae

HE Ifland of Jamaica, whofe Civil and Natural Hiftory

is the fubje& of the following fheets, has been now known and

inhabited by Europeans above two hundred and forty years,

is of a confiderable extent, productive of many ufeful Ar-

ticles of Commerce, bas been the frene of various and fingular events;

and frill continues to fupply us with a neceffary appendage to our pre-

fent refined manner of living. Thefe are well known circumflances ;

and ibat the wealth of many, the fubfiftance of multitudes, the extent of

our Navigation, the Revenues of the Crown, and in fhort the Emolu-

ment of, the whole Nation, are deeply interefled and augmented by the

perpetual intercourfe with this diflant Ifland, is univerfally allowed :

Yet how fmall a Part either of thofe who inhabit it, or of thofe who

by one means or other draw the principal part of their fulfiffence,

wealth, and affluence from this fruitful fpot know any thing of the

Ifland in general, its produttions, advantages, or inconveniencies; or

give themfelves any pain in confidering whether the former may be im- proved, or by what means the latter may be remedied, or removed.

And indeed were any difbofed to do either, what grounds have they at prefent to proceed upon? For, tho many amongft thofe who have reforted thither, have been. diftinguifbed for. their Talents and Learn- ing 5 for their Curiofity and Abilities: the Arts of Government, or the means of acquiring Wealth and Power, have generally occupied their thoughts y or the love of eafe and pleafure, to whith the Climate but too much difpofes even tbe mof determined minds, have difipated the beft eflablifbed Refolutions; and in confequence, fcarcely any thing bas been

B attempted

vi PR eika C E

attempted towards exhibiting a juf idea of this Ifland, confidered both in a Civil and Natural Light; except what bears the evident marks of Imbecility, Inattention, or erroneous Information.

Happy in a large fhare of health and firength ; enured to the Climate, and witha mind ftrongly difpofed to the cultivation of Natural Knowledge; I faw with regret, bow greatly the Hifory of this Ifland was neglected; and determined to lofe no opportunity to inform myfelf of every par-

ticular, that might enable me to give the moft fatisfattory Account, both of

the paff and prefent State of the Ifland y and during feveral years ref- dence upon the fpot, it was the employment of every leifure bour to col- leét the moft authentic Materials for this purpofe. As a Phyfician, the nature of tbe, Difeafes that appear there, drew my principal aiten- Hon: As a Naturalift, the various produétions of the Earth claimed my peculiar care; and as a Member of the Community, and a Subject of Great Britain, I took the liberty to enquire into the nature of its go- vernment, and whatever elfe re[petting it, might tend to afford fatisfac-

tion to mankind in general.

I have not indeed difpofed my obfervations in the order above mention- ed ; there are more Men than Naturalifts, and perhaps, more of thefe than a, ge ; 1 have for this reafon followed that order that feeined the moft natural, and placed, as far as I could, fubjeéts akin together. In

the part which treats of the Civil State of the Ifland, I own I have

been the moft brief. The lives of the Governors ; the civil and military tranfactions ; and various other particulars, would have made no impro- per part of Juch a work; but this would take up a large fhare of my time on a fubjet to me not fo materially interefting ; and of confe- ~ quence, hindered me from purfuing that part to which I found myfelf more equals more ftrongly inclined; and in which I thought my refearches more likely to tend to public advantage. The Natural Hiftory is there- fore by much the moft extenfroe part ; the productions are both numerous and curious ; and contains great numbers of articles whereof many have been left wholly unnoticed, while others were but imperfetlly or inaccu- rately reprefented tous. Sir Hans Sloane hath not colletfed above 800 Species of plants in all Lis travels: In Jamaica alone, I have examined and defcribed about twelve hundred, befides Foffils, Infeéts, and other produttions ; many of which be makes no mention of. It muft be owned, _neverthelefs, to bis praifo, that bis works, inaccurate as they are, upon the whole, have done both the Author and his Country credit.

In refpeet to the difcafes, the Duty of my profefion; the uncommon

Appearances of many; tbe Violence of the fymptoms, and fatal Confe-

guences

Cee a ee

RE HA GB vii

quences that often attend ‘em, bad generally rendered them the principal

objects of my Study : frequent opportunities gave me an occafion of

enquiring more firitily into their Gourfes and Caufes; and the neg lee or inaccuracy of former Writers; the confufed and imperfect Notions generally received of the moft dangerous and deftruttive of them; and the pernicious Methods of practice, now, too frequently in ufe among the ge~ nerality of our American practitioners, engaged me to communicate my Obfervations ; which I have difpofed in a few Differtatious, to avoid

prolixity, or too frequent repetitions. M

The Diverfity of Subjetfs treated of in the courfe of this work, has Jubjetted it to a great numberof Parts and Subdivifions ; The. firft of thefe gives an account of the Civil State. of the HM /land 5, avid for greater conveniency is divided into two Parts or Chapters: The Firft contains a brief Hiftory of the former ftate of that place, continued down to the thorough Eftablifoment of the Colony; and the Second includes its prefent State; with a more circumftantial Account of its Trade, Imports, Exports, Revenues, and Curiofities.

The Second Part of the work is a regular Hiftory of the Natural . Produétions , and, as it is by far the moft confiderable, we have di- vided it into Three Books; and thefe again into Claffes and Settions, according to the natural order of the Subject. The Firft of thoje (be- fide a Catalogue of the native Foffils of Jamaica, with Jome Remarks on many of the Particulars) contains a New General Method of clajj- ing native Foffls. In the Second Book, we give an account of the ve- getable produétions of that Ifland, which we have difpofed chiefly ac- cording to the Syftem of Linneus; and have added the Ufes and Pro- perties of each, as far as they have been yet afcertained; as well as the Methods of Cultivating, and Manufatturing Juch as we have ob-. ferved to furmfb any valuable or ufeful commodity. The Third con- tains an account of the Animals chiefly obferved in and about the Ifland ; and thefe are claffed nearly according to the Syfiem of Linneus alfo ; but where that feemed forced or unnatural, we have followed another method, in which we have endeavoured to be guided folely by natural appearances.

The Third Part of the work is made up of a few Differtations, con- taining Jome ufeful remarks and obfervations on the Nature of Climates in generals the Diverfity of Atmofpheres ; and the different Difpofitions of the human machine in each; with an account of the Diforders ari- fing peculiarly from them, in every age, fex, and climate; and par- ticularly, of the yellow and remittent Fevers.

The

viii S&B fF A GE

The whole is illuftrated with fifty odd copper-plates delineated im- mediately from nature by the accurate Ehret, in which we have been careful to reprefent the mof curious and uncommon productions of every . fort, now obferved in that place; befides a map of the Ifland, and a large draught of the harbours of Port-Royal and Kingfton : Ir zs in- ter[perfed with fuch remarks and obfervations as I could find well grounded or attefted, and likely to prove of any fervice to mankind y with- out incumbring any part thereof with tedious relations, or ufelefs quota- tions ; and I hope by thefe means to render it an agreeable entertain- ment to the lovers of Natural Hiftory in general; profitable to fuch as live in thofe parts in particular; and ufeful to fuch as may be in- duced to vifit, or prattife in, the like climates,

& | Ph Jl 4 ul FM i i a : ip f A CEE 7 D LI n a ini ak = | TIELDETTT- - TODEPEDIN Aut UL ‘Cure yal > ` da n i J i. E e eia wl To " = : ee ine Lg MS ou Ro oe MG a- ophet UU - ` . a he Ad. Pigs, laesa ar A c. LAN VE AT Y W V T Wb Ye JAG AVA MAP og] o A l f M i} m, h "uA 4 8p "cha. : r Y

L

7,

re i

A |. 7 atPhimbPoint |

WE ^ Lge " : Py EU ft h 7 | = Y DA | wif d VAY) Vr HJ TW s LG 77 f Wer SN / äi Pf | | | à | i EUIS nj DP. P t, 5 " we c ade 2 EA Ly, A; $ 3 A | | | t M gr L^ » v j | m 7 GE ae A, Ap / NE AMT m 1 fe \ Pur . d nt 77 2/2 ; Cc LL | PYA Ü A , i

17 | |

uc o

FF ERE AERE

721 ^t ad "LE DIL Dae Jt Put a My CERF

47/

Middle 70

Correct Draught 4e

o

Me Hor VM Of o —— Prat 3 Da Ge: «c y , 101 and ex&ttidltoti-; bue QAM gra Re Q g eiue.

wilh 77 : Neys ande Moai a ppteent j Y^.

Ad

(

o —À

SS

D ie RON OR am aE ona ‘from alate Accurate Survey "y

b)

^ A py) S $

fer? i 1 CUM

Mir

pW UA

" Ny YONG ate tern

er am Y

Mm--————————— sie = i "e à is pam i : DE sse e eR imer ee

T2

Cıvıı and Natu ga; HISTORY elec Mei A Pak oL

Containing the Civil State of that Iland.

CHAP h

Of the foritier State of J^ MAICA:

of America) is of afi irregular oblong form, and adorned with aridge or chain

of lofty mountains, which in its irregular difpofition, from the molt eaftern

point weftward, occupies the middle part of the country ; and by its various appen-

dages, inlets, and declivities, forms thofe fruitful vales and frequent rifing grounds

tween the mountains and the fea, which we find every where fupplied with

fprings, rivulets, and large currents, that low from different parts of the main ridge, and continue their winding fteepy courfes to the fea,

It lies between 17 degrees 31 minutes and a half, and 18 degrees thirty two minutes and a quarter north latitude ; and extends from 75 degrees 40 minutes and three quarters, to 78 degrees 20 minutes and three quarters weit longitude (2) ; being about a hundred and feventy two miles in length, and fifty eight over where broad- eft, Itisfituated a little to the eaft of the entrance into the gulph of Mexico, having the ifland of Cuba to the north; "fucatan and the gulph of Honduras to the weft; Hifpaniolaand the Caribbee Iflands to the eaft; and that part of the main land called Granada, now a province of the kingdom of Santa Fee; to the fouth, at the dif- tance of about a hundred and fifty leagues. os |

This Ifland was firft difcoveted by the famous Cbrz/fopber Colon (b) or Columbus;

(a) See the Philofophical Tranfa&dions. __ ny (b) I have extraéted the following account from the Decades of Peter Martyr, whom I look upon as one of the moft accurate writers of the affairs of America. Chriftopher Colon (ince commonly called Columbus) was'a native of Nervi in the territory of Genoa. He was bred to the fea, but at what time or upon what occafioti he had coticeived a notion of thofe remote lands, is uncertain: It is, how- ever, well known, that, on this occafion, he had made frequent unfuccefsful applications to the feveral Princes of Europe before he received any encouragement. But the King of Spain was at length per- fuaded to favour bis project, and fupplied him with three 2 and about 220 men, with which he failed in

E^ HE Ifland of J aM A 1€ A (ore of thofe fituated neat the thain continetit

ek: THE CLVAL] HLS TOR Y

in the year 1494, then on his fecond voyage in thefe parts, and at that timeat fea, chiefly with a defign to obferve the ifland of Cuba; taking it to be a part of the main conti- 4 nent, -of-which the natives of Hz/panio/a had already- given himduteligence. But . a the veffel proving leaky, and being no longer able to keep the feas with fafety, he d .put in at Chireras, on the north fide of this ifland, and landed foon after, though the natives at firft made fome fhew of refiftance.. He then called this iland Sz. Jago, and was obliged to continue there until he had put his veffelin tolerable order to ven- a ture to fea again; during which time the people lived in great friend(hip with the 4 ‘natives, in. whole poffetiion the ifland fill continued until the year. 1509 ;,whén s: Don Diegé Columbus, {on to Chriflopher, (then Admiral in thofe feas) (ent am de ; Ejfguibello with a party of men to invade the place; the other conquefts and fettle-

ments being at that time under the goverpment and direction of Don INicueffa and 4 Ojeda, both appointed from home, and now in high difputes about this ifland, from A whence they were generally fupplied | with provifions on emgrgent occafions. This party landed, and foon made a conquelt-of a place, where they. were always receiv ed in. a fiiendly manner, wherever either chance or neceflity had driven them upon the coaft ; and for many years after the Ifland continued in the pofleffion of the Spa- niards (c), thoughmuch neglected on account of their other conquefts, and not unfre- quently infüled or invaded (4) by other;nations. —_

The firft improvement undertaken here by the Spaniards was the town of Mellila, - which was built about Port Maria, on the north fide of thisifland; but the fituation di not proving to their fatis#action, they removed. fome: leagues more to thé weft, and built the famous town Sevilla, the ruins of which are fill to be feen on the dow of the hill immediately above St, Annes Bay, But as the colony grew more popus

from Palos in Andalufia about the 3d of Auguft 1492... The people, after Beine paffed a confiderable time. t fea, began to mutiny, and refolved n 5.they were, i. perfuaded to con- tinue the voyage a. few days longer, and in a day or two after (which was about the rith of October) came in view of feveral iflands, whereof. Hifpaniola was the Principals on which they landed about the 18th. On the firft approach of the Spaniards the Indians retired tothe woods, but one of the womén, E. who was overtakenin her flight; being treated with great humanity and decency, and then fet at libesty, joined the reft, and brought them foon after to an amicable interview; at which fuch a friendfhip w vas contracted. between both ‘parties, that the natives Heated our adventurers with the a atelt Fu n gua and liberality for fome time altern, ior "About the 4th of January following Colon fet out on his voyage h Load having, ros built a finall fort-at the Nütroit) (where he hithiérto lad been) for the fecurity ‘of about do of His people whom he defigned to leave behind; buthe carried 10 of the natives with ne rics he dex be the: Berci HUM fatisty the curiofity of ( thé Royal Family at his return. ; When he arrived at the court of Spain,, he met -h a mo gracious reception "E wa S fo n ates appointed Prefect or Admiral of the Spani/h nav „inthe eltern bégan to: poan Tor another voyage; fi ich there had been / . of which he pu th among whom he had been careful to mix People of i fons 6 of Bhce well uer oe a inda great variety of cattle and grain. ^. ith this Acet he failed. about the 7th of Oaker 1493, and, after, paling doc weeks’ at fea, feli jim with the Caribbee Ylands, whofe inhab itants he difcovered to be cannibals. He paft fome days amo eliflands, to which he gave'thofe names many of them ftill retain; and then failed Srey; Por "D

pánitlay. where he arrived about the 4th of the nones of February followitig After he had fettled his new colony in this ifland, he put to fea again with a’ defign to'obferve dic lands of Cuba, takin van to be a part of the main continent, which (he was informed) had beer fituated more:

to the weftwa: “but | meeting with à hard gale of wind on the cQ alt of that illas den he had ra down Pc diftance on the fóuth fide thereof, ‘he was forced. out to fea, and Rafte ao the high lands of Jamaica for which he failed direelyp and: anchoréd i in one ef the ports on the north’ of the Ti: where he continued fome time to refit his veffel) v;i; nj

(c). De la. Cafes afürms. that ibe xe bad foon deftroyed: cas ive thoufand of the, atita: e being not above two or three hundred tin his time, which was buta Ed eal M n feffion of the place. a

(d) Sir Anthony Shirly vali fn 3 that invaded this ifland after it was in the. Pu of we s. m he landed therein 1592, without oppofiti ; but left i it foon after, not thinking it then worth keeping. It was afterwards invaded by Colonel. T. ^, former | Jeneral, of. the. Lxaward. Ifands, ‘who in 1638, had fitted out a fmall fleet with which he failed do nong g the Sp. anijb fettlements ts, and plundered both Si. Domingo and'St. Yago. This valiant officer landed with pU five iundred r men at Pa//2ze Fort, and cut his way through the feveral breaft-works caft up by the Spaniards, to the very town. of. St, Fago, eae ~hence he casried a very confiderable booty. . See . Hicker ingill, Be,

Tous,

eS er,

i lal

OOF ey A M! X!Dc'k:' . +

lous,- they ftretehed towards the fouth part of the Mand, where they built the fa- mous town of Je Vega, from which the defcendants of Columbus are {aid have the titles of Dukes conferred upon them. Thistown profpered better thin etther of the others, and increaíed fo much, that in 1655 it confilled of no lef: that 1760 houfes, , two churches, two chapels, and an abbey;- at which time the Eridi (failing in their attempt upon $7. Domingo) made a defcent upon, and conqucred the Tfland. ; But the commanders returned home foon after, leaving a confiderable part of dheir forces (ej, under the command of Colonel Forte/gue, to guardand fecure the place; and were both, after a hearing or two, ordered to the tower for their milcarrage at Hifha- niola. To give a more perfect account of this revolution, we mult now look back a little time into the ftate of affairs in England.

Cromwell, who had raifed himfelf to the head of affairs at home, where he now governed almoft without controul, had no fooner fixed himfelf by the agt of govern- ment, and fettled the general c diit M usus the. nation to his fatisfaétio i, than he

| bcfore the Engli Ub: came ase to the | M r

F thofe in « e fifpeded he had the Test reafon to confide, in fome remote part (f). W ith this view, and probably to gain the more upon the nation in general, or at leaft to {creen his private defigns the better,

he ordered a fleet of feventeen men of war, with many tranfport veflels to be got in readinefs, the command of which was given to Admiral Pez; and an army of be- tween fix.and feven thoufand regulars, under the command of General Venables.

With this armada they failed for Barbadoes; where the (hips were ordered to rendez- vous and the commanders to open their inflructions: they arrived there about the 14th of February, 1654, and recruited with fach fuccé(s that they foon augmented the foldiery to the: number. of ‘ten or twelve thoufand (2), with ‘which they failed down to Hi/paniola, They made that: iland the toth of 7/7777, and foon after landed within a few leagues to the weft of Sz. Domingo, from whence they marched directly towards the town :: but the foldiers being difheartehed by a previous proclamation (b JJ, which deprived them of all hopes of plunder; were foon repulfcd by-a handful of Mulatoes ; and after having loft five or fix bündred men, with fome brave. officers, they left off all thought of conqueft, reimbarked, and fell down to Jamaica, where they landed, (2) on the 10th of May 165 5; but marched fo flowly towards the capi- tal St. "ago de la Vega (whichithen was very tich'and populous) thatthe Spaniards shad retired, and carried moft of their epi. Mee with as to xu woods (H, town.” dn

Cromwell having h :née'of this conqueft, fent oùt a fref) ce ment Oe near three | Hp. owe v r; add refolved to milfs no ap portnity af fapportine this new addition, VERET now ated ved him as another Siberia; for the frequent difturbances raifed by the ‘Cavalic# Party, and the refolution with which many had denied, or refolved not to fubmitto the authority of his Major Generals, put him under aneceflity of getting rid of fome of , who were frequently afterwards (during his wfarpation) tranfpgited to this

E land. where, with the troops alread y ftationed there, they, became. the ri Pinyin

féttlers.

"The Spaniards, who had not yet ideferted: the Hand, contaid dliémfayes: in thé woods and inland parts; from whence they made frequent excutfions, and killed fuch ftragglers and lonely perfons as they could meet with. Butbeing at length weary of their qiie the pens and ime no hopes to dled ge: the a um

asig, qnan. s (e) About 3000 men.

( f) See Ludlow’s Memoirs.

(zg) See Echard's Hiftory of. England y Ludlrg' Memoirs Mier and tie Mesi of * late. affairs of. England; Lond- printed 16082. 2 oO 8 ^ c pl onum s E E. :

b) See Édard' Hiftory of England. | : 9M " ,

E It is thought they landed oppofite to: Port- Reels ; bs 1 col not t learn the i = cers

"d S Hickeringill, + 3e if T: dcn PA , i d Under the command of Major See iul Colonel Humphry. je

4 THE, CIVEEL HISTORY

to the north fide of the Iland; and, with a fupply of about thirty companies well provided with arms and ammunition, which foon after arrived there from Cuba and the Main, fortified themfelves at Rio Neuvo. But the Engli/h, then under the command of Colonel D’Oy/y, having early intelligence of the arrival of this rein- forcement, marched directly towards them, and forced them in their intrenchments, tho’ the Spaniards at that time were more than doüble their number. Upon this and other ill fuccefles, they retired to Cuba, leaving many of the Negroes and Mulatoes to keep poffeffion of the place, and to prevent the conquerors from fettling in the country parts: thefe people continued very troublefome for atime, but the Englifh, who were not themfelves ufed to the woods, at length called in fome of the Buccaneers to their affiftance, and foon after brought them under fubjection.

The French fettlers at Tortugo, who, about this time, were much neglected by - the government at home, then under a minority, and too frequently prefled by the Spaniards abroad, refolved to provide for themfelves ; and foon after became a tet of land and fea robbers, in the practice of which they continued for many years: nor did their then governor de la Place (m), in theleaít, difcourage proceedings whereby he became a confiderable gainer, | |

The government of Englandfalling againinto confufion, upon the death of the vigi- lantCromwel, the affairs of Jamaica were much neglected, and the ifland, on that account, was frequently reforted to by the pirates of Torzugo, who were now grown a very for- midable body; and the people, at this time under little or no reftraint, encouraged by the example of thofe who had frequently brought